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Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz—5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced.
Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication. Abstract Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network.
The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal [ Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point.
The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance.
Abstract Long term continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram ECG in a free living environment provides valuable information for prevention on the heart attack and other high risk diseases. This paper presents the design of a real-time wearable ECG monitoring system with associated cardiac arrhythmia classification [ Long term continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram ECG in a free living environment provides valuable information for prevention on the heart attack and other high risk diseases.
This paper presents the design of a real-time wearable ECG monitoring system with associated cardiac arrhythmia classification algorithms. One of the striking advantages is that ECG analog front-end and on-node digital processing are designed to remove most of the noise and bias. To realize the real-time medical analysis, the ECG is digitalized and transmitted to a smart phone via Bluetooth. On the smart phone, the ECG waveform is visualized and a novel layered hidden Markov model is seamlessly integrated to classify multiple cardiac arrhythmias in real time. Experimental results demonstrate that the clean and reliable ECG waveform can be captured in multiple stressed conditions and the real-time classification on cardiac arrhythmia is competent to other workbenches.
Abstract The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks WBAN. These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital [ The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks WBAN. These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment.
In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations.
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The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. Abstract A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain FDTD method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks BANs , which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium.
The problem of [ A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain FDTD method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks BANs , which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body.
Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique.
One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom DoFs can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data.
Abstract In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. To achieve this, [ In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. To achieve this, medical sensors with wireless communication, computational and energy harvesting capabilities are networked on, or in, the human body forming what is commonly called a Wireless Body Area Network WBAN.
It utilises WBAN-specific features and a novel ultra low power wake up receiver technology, to achieve flexible and at the same time very low power wireless data transfer of physiological signals. As the main application is in the medical domain, or personal health monitoring, the protocol caters for different types of medical sensors. We define four sensor modes, in which the sensors can transmit data, depending on the sensor type and emergency level.
A full power dissipation model is provided for the protocol, with individual hardware and application parameters. Finally, an example application shows the reduction in the power consumption for different data monitoring scenarios. Review Jump to: Research , Other. Open Access Review. Abstract The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion.
The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties [ The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals.
The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network WBAN integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient.
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The consequences may be narcolepsy, which is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping while driving or at workplace and also, it can lead to CVDs. In fact, a significant part of the world population is affected by sleep disorders.
Polysomnography PSG is a diagnostic technique which is used to monitor sleep disorders. PSG records the sleep data which can further be saved for observation by the doctors. WBASN architectures have been proposed for observing sleep disorders and removing the complexity of using wired system of PSG through sensor nodes.
For instance, a low-power architecture has been proposed in Rajagopal and Rodriguez-Villegas, 99 which evaluates sleep stages by applying automatic sleep staging algorithm ASSA on a central node and analog signal processing ASP architecture on sensor node. A prototype bio-potential sensor is designed in De Vicq et al. Asthma is a disease which has become very common and can be fatal if not treated. Asthma monitoring system assists the asthma patients in early detection of hazardous situations for asthma exacerbations.
The system uses a wearable inertial sensor node, equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer, worn at the waist, and a personal mobile device to detect and recognize different types of falls. This could be a handy system for advanced aged people who could still move but are feeble and could collapse anywhere due to their old age or other illnesses for instance, in the case of fainting. As proposed by the authors, the detection method consists of two main processing blocks: 1 threshold-based trigger which is executed on the wearable sensor and 2 posture classification which operates on the mobile device.
Healthcare Sensor Networks: Challenges Toward Practical Implementation
One of the leading causes of death globally is CVD. Myocardial infarction MI is the most fatal one which is generally known as heart attack by most of the people. Hadjem et al. Again, in Gravina and Fortino, the authors present automatic methods for the detection of accelerative cardiac defense response CDR.
CDR basically refers to the idea that organisms react physiologically to the presence of danger or threat and this reactivity has a protective function because it provides the basis for adaptive behavior. In this work, the authors present a wearable application for body sensor network BSN , to be specific, a novel method for fully automatic detection of CDR pattern. In fact, any such kind of use of sensors could ensure emergency medical treatment at the right time as the sensors would transmit data when a situation occurs.
Millions of people in the globe suffer from CVDs and other chronic diseases like severe joint pain, diabetes, high-blood pressure, and so on. Implantable devices having capabilities to communicate wirelessly can be used to analyze and deliver warnings to support human life. Devices for instance pacemakers, neuro stimulators, implanted cardiac defibrillators ICD , drug pumps, and baclofen pumps have been used in the human body.
Cancer is a leading cause of deaths worldwide. For instance, these sensors are able to diagnose tumors without the need of biopsy. A condition in which the body loses the ability to utilize insulin is known as diabetes. It is the eighth-leading cause of death by disease as one study mentions. WBASNs provide an incredible prospect for health monitoring remotely. One of the core objectives of AAL is to support the elderly people in their daily life. The basic aim of AAL in WBASN is toward the betterment of elderly people so that they might be able to live independently with kind of self-care with the aid of modern technologies.
AAL provides environment for enhanced living.