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The draft of each entry was reviewed by the editor in charge of that group, by the general editor, and in the case of the more important or contentious entries, by other reviewers as well. Revisions were made based on these comments. At a later stage, entries were cross-referenced with other entries in Volumes I through IV to guide the reader in an exploration of a topic.
The covers of the five volumes were selected to represent disability in various historical periods and cultural settings. The jacket art provides an index to the cultural, historical, and representational diversity of disability imagery. In the painting, her identity is split.
One image proudly holds her back brace while the other image portrays her impairment as if exposed as a medical specimen. The portrait assembles all of the constituent professions of the time—barber, friar, nun—as they treat a patient who looks out anxiously toward the audience as a tulip is extracted from his head.
The work, created by the famous Japanese printmaker Utagawa Kuniyoshi in , emphasizes the disparity that exists between social rituals of gaming that continue even as one receives serious medical attention. The cover of Volume IV, showing the early-fifteenth-century Nigerian King Oba being supported by his two personal assistants, captures the king's effort to explain sudden paralysis in his legs. Rather than confessing his incapacity, Oba argues to his subjects that he has become one with the revered mudfish of his day that walks on land and swims in water.
At a time when physical, sensory, or cognitive disability in a king could mean expulsion or execution, the bronze demonstrates the necessity of quick thinking that often must accompany disabled persons' ability to fend off violent social tendencies.
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In contrast, the multiply disabled daughter appears to revel in the sun while possibly imagining alternative futures for herself yet to be thought by the adults around her. Taken collectively, the jacket images provide viewers entry into the diversity of cultural responses to, and portrayals of, disability at key moments in history.
They become a patchwork of moments in the growing mosaic of our understanding of disability as a historical, cultural, and global phenomenon. In addition, there are more than images related to disability in Volume V. These images illustrate the powerful representation and symbolism of disability in diverse societies.
The use of language and concepts is an issue in an international encyclopedia. Disability is often referred to by different terms and concepts. Rather than forcing each contributor to use the same language, the editors decided to let the authors use the terms and concepts of their culture but to explain them when necessary.
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This preserves the multicultural flavor of the enterprise. Likewise, when authors were writing about contentious issues, they were encouraged to present the various positions and their rationales. Other authors consider disability to be best understood in terms of human differences that should be accepted as such rather than as being seen as regrettable deficits. This position stands against the background where specific disabilities have taken on positive and negative meanings [Page lxvi] in various cultures. For example, in some societies, blindness has been associated with the characteristics of wisdom and prescience, which are valued, whereas AIDS and leprosy Hansen's disease are often stigmatized.
The Reader's Guide classifies entries into twenty-five thematic categories. In addition, the materials in Volume V are listed in the Reader's Guide to enable readers to integrate the content of entries with the primary source documents in Volume V. To put the concept of disability in a historical and cultural context, a chronology maps disability across time, culture, and geography and is repeated at the end of each volume.
This valuable research tool appears at the end of each volume.
In addition, throughout the encyclopedia there are listings of print and electronic references to government documents and data that are rich resources to investigate how disability is measured and treated on an international level. The International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations, and World Health Organization also are fine sources of data and policy initiatives related to disability, much of which can be accessed over the Internet. May readers discover that the Encyclopedia of Disability provides a fascinating entry into the world of disability where minds are expanded, prejudices shattered, and spirits raised.
The range of interrelated resources is designed to stimulate curiosity and encourage readers to move back and forth through the five volumes to pursue their interests. Internet references and search strategies assist the user in entering a larger world of online disability resources that are continually being updated and expanded. The encyclopedia is composed as a multidisciplinary, cross-cultural, and historically grounded resource tool that should lead the reader across fields, theories, debates, and practices.
The experience of exploring the encyclopedia should answer the questions: What is disability, and why is it important in my life?
The Encyclopedia of Disability is the result of an enormous worldwide, multidisciplinary effort that took six years to conceive and execute, involving 74 editors and more than authors from over twenty countries. The work is the result of lively interactions at conferences, seminars, and editorial board meetings conducted over a cup of tea or a glass of wine, through email, and on conference calls.
In many cases, the colleagues, students, and staff of the editors and authors in various parts of the world became support systems and sounding boards for component pieces of the project. Because of the size and complexity of the encyclopedia, it is impossible to recognize everyone who directly or indirectly contributed. Nevertheless, we express our deep gratitude to all of these researchers, colleagues, disabled people, advocates, students, government officials, and policy makers who made this incredible project happen and who stimulated others through their knowledge and resourcefulness.
The idea for the Encyclopedia of Disability was conceived during — in conversations with Rolf Janke of Sage Publications, who provided the inspiration, support, and considerable Sage resources that made the project possible. He was ever present to solve problems and enthusiastically support creative ideas.
Developmental editor Sara Tauber and project editor Diana E. Axelsen cheerfully kept the production process moving along, Ravi Balasuriya worked his magic on design and layout, and Michelle Kenny helped with the design of the cover and the marketing materials. Leticia Gutierrez served as reference system coordinator, and Carmel Withers coordinated the marketing campaign and played a key role in shaping the look and feel of the marketing pieces. The index and reader's guide were prepared by Mary Mortensen, Alicia Merritt compiled the chronology, and Sandra Ng Sauvajot assisted with graphics.
The senior editors comprised a remarkably productive team that was involved in developing the headword list, generating an international list of authors, inviting authors, reviewing and editing manuscripts, and adding their wisdom and creativity to the project. Their high standards, diversity of background and opinions, broad-ranging circle of international contacts, and insights into the critical issues of the field enriched the final product.
Jerome Bickenbach, a philosopher and a lawyer, kept us internationally oriented and focused on the critical legal, governmental, social policy, and moral issues in the disability world. David Mitchell, Sharon Snyder, and their students introduced us to an extensive social network in the arts and humanities and were continual sources of creativity. Sharon Snyder also served as the illustrations editor for the project and compiled a wonderful catalogue of visual images from which the five covers and more than illustrations included in Volume V of the Encyclopedia were drawn.
Walt Schalick brought the wisdom and insight of a researcher, practicing pediatrician, and medical historian to the group, tempering his standards of excellence with a disarming sense of humor. He organized formidable sets of entries in medicine and history.
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Scott Brown added a clear understanding of the complex world of national and international government agencies and nongovernmental organizations that deal with disability, especially in the areas of education and employment. Dudley Childress opened up the world of rehabilitation engineering and environmental modifications by organizing the entries and recruiting authors in these areas.
Joe Flaherty is a renaissance man who marshaled an [Page lxviii] interdisciplinary team to address mental health issues related to disability in historical, social, and cultural contexts. His enthusiasm and humor energized the team. Allan Heinemann brought the perspective of a health services researcher to the endeavor, putting disability concerns in the context of health service delivery systems and coordinating these entries.
Tamar Heller tapped her extensive international network in aging, intellectual disabilities, and the family to bolster and coordinate the entries in these areas. She also graciously put the resources of the Department of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago behind the project, which played a major role in making the project feasible.
Chris Keys brought the forces of numerous psychologists, community organizers, and advocates to bear to produce a set of entries on disabled people in the community. In Sydney, Trevor Parmenter and his staff offered numerous insights into disability issues in Australasia, coordinated the entries from Australia and New Zealand, and supplied advice in the area of intellectual disability.
Tom Shakespeare and Mairian Scott-Hill grounded the encyclopedia in the United Kingdom by bringing their historical and cultural perspectives to the work and adding to the voice of disabled people. They suggested important topics and authors and organized many of the entries from the UK.
The sixty International Advisory Editorial Board members from sixteen countries helped add valuable perspectives, diversity, and depth to the work by suggesting entries and authors, reviewing manuscripts, and writing entries. The authors themselves were another source of ideas and perspectives. In addition, many other colleagues eagerly engaged in debates, offered ideas, and reviewed individual manuscripts.