Is there a definite progression or pattern of development from the first essay in each part to the last? In his Introduction, Baldwin writes that "Nothing is more desirable than to be released from an affliction, but nothing is more frightening than to be divested of a crutch" p. What are the "affliction" and the "crutch"? In what ways throughout the essays does he identify and illustrate them? Are they, in any instances, the same?
Do they appear in The Fire Next Time? Baldwin makes extensive use of irony and paradox throughout these essays. What kinds of exile does Baldwin write about in the essays, both explicitly and implicitly?
How does the dominant theme, argument, or concern of each essay relate to the overall thrust and burden of the book? How successful is Baldwin in clearly defining, presenting, or persuading us of the primary "message" of each essay? What were the circumstances in which black Southern parents sent their children to all-white schools in the early s and their reasons for doing so?
Are these circumstances and reasons still in operation? Does his description have any relevance or applicability in urban America today? In "Faulkner and Desegregation," Baldwin poses specific challenges to his readers.menfiejogtai.tk
James baldwin notes native son thesis
What are those challenges? Do they remain appropriate challenges? What are its implications? What does Baldwin mean in "Notes for a Hypothetical Novel" when he refers to Americans as "a handful of incoherent people in an incoherent country"?
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How does Baldwin identify and characterize these social forces in each book? On the evidence of the two books, what system of values does Baldwin find to replace the Christianity renounced when he was seventeen? Does he present a coherent moral or ethical vision that is applicable within both the personal and social spheres? Does he remain consistent with such statements as ". Where does Baldwin present the propositions and why does he choose to formulate them the way he does that: 1 ". Is his presentation of these arguments persuasive? What specific elements, devices, and techniques of structure and style-or example, comparison and contrast, imagery, example and illustration, metaphor, argument, description, categorization-does Baldwin use most extensively?
Are any predominant? How do they contribute to the strength, clarity, richness, and persuasiveness of his writing?
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Compare the autobiographical elements and concerns present in the two books. Do they provide us with an understanding of how Baldwin arrived at the attitudes, values, and concerns of his maturity? Baldwin consistently links the subject or main theme s of an essay to-or roots it in-his own life, career, feelings, or observations. These were religion, tradition, and imperialism.
Native Son - Wikipedia
Does he approach each of the three from the same perspective? And this long history of moral evasion has had an unhealthy effect on the total life of the country.
What other instances, in both books, of this argument can you cite? What does he mean by this? Coming where it does, near the end of Nobody Knows My Name , what impact does this statement have on our acceptance of everything that precedes it in this book and of everything in The Fire Next Time? In what contexts does Baldwin discuss violence?
What do those contexts, together with specific passages, reveal about his attitude toward violence as a historical occurrence and as a literary effect? How does this statement reflect back on what Baldwin is attempting in both books, on his stated and implied purpose for writing, and on the "vision" of America-of the lives of black and white Americans-he presents in the two books? Or am I afraid of journeying any further with myself? What are the levels of meaning and the full implications of the phrase "returning to America" for Baldwin?
Based on both books, in what ways and with what consequences did Baldwin return to America? In what ways did he journey "further with myself" and further into himself? With what consequences? Do the two journeys converge? She made me feel pity and revulsion and fear. It was awful to realize that she no longer caused me to feel affection. Covertly, I watched her face, which was the face of an old woman; it had fallen in, the eyes were sunken and lightless; soon she would be dying, too. Apparently, I had had a voice and my father had liked to show me off before the members of the church.
I had forgotten what he had looked like when he was pleased but now I remembered that he had always been grinning with pleasure when my solos ended. For now it seemed that he had not always been cruel. Baldwin ends this essay on somewhat of a bittersweet note of hope, even though his reflections have taken him over a slow and torturous memory of events in the past.
His language again can almost be heard as a high-minded sermon. The first idea was acceptance, the acceptance, totally without rancor, of life as it is, and men as they are: in the light of this idea, it goes without saying that injustice is a commonplace. This fight begins, however, in the heart and it now had been laid to my charge to keep my own heart free of hatred and despair. This intimation made my heart heavy and, now that my father was irrecoverable, I wished that he had been beside me so I could have searched his face for the answers which only the future would give me now.
Baldwin sets a high standard for producing such intimate portraits set in uncompromisingly harsh conditions. The grim self-knowledge gained from his early experiences is at times almost unbearable to read. He is a strong role model for any writer, the master of amplitude who creates a wealth of fully developed and complex characters. In addition, I find his voice to be almost theatrical at times with its commanding presence.
I'm retired from another life and live in the mountains of eastern West Virginia with my muse Jody along with one remaining dog. We've decided no more dogs and cats. Losing them is just too painful. The good folks at Wesleyan College in central West Virginia guided me to a graduate degree in fine arts in early My plan is to use some of the skills I learned from two years in this creative writing program to tell my story. Skip to content. Mottke Weissman Public Domain.
David Evans I'm retired from another life and live in the mountains of eastern West Virginia with my muse Jody along with one remaining dog.
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