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El pampero soplara mientras haya atmosfera en torno al planeta, pero los indios no siempre podran arrasar, robar, incendiar y violar, porque los indios van tomando el mismo camino que los dioses quienes han desaparecido, corridos por el desprecio del publico, cansado este de verles arrasar, robar, incendiar y violar--exactamente las mismas fechorias que cometen los indios, lo cual dejaria, sea dicho de paso, suponer que los dioses no fueronjamas otra cosa sino indios disfrazados bajo la conducta del libertino cacique Zeus. Estados del arte. Puestas en escena de construcciones historicas e imaginarias durante el Bicentenario en Argentina.

En el cuarto diminuto frente a un asado pampero , servido con nerviosismo, escuchamos: Scherer con los Montoneros. Los personajes son Pablo, joven, ignorante de las letras y bello pampero , benjamin de Micaela. Pablo o la vida en las pampas: pensamiento a fondo. Dictionary browser?

Fuego de los dioses. Los metales precolombinos del Noroeste argentino

In a context of social effervescence, sharp disagreements arose within the Church as a result of the reading and implementation of the documents of Second Vatican Council At stake were the interpretation and the kind of changes to be made. Opposing the liberationist trends, which advocated revolutionary pastoral action and challenged the connections between the Church elite and the dominant power, there was a Catholic hierarchy which resisted any aggiornamento of the Church.

Amid intensified conflicts with the authorities and a politicized social context, the Church lost large numbers of Catholic laypersons to the ranks of political parties. With its view of the ecclesiastical institution as a space of conflict, it set out to purge its structures. To this end, it strengthened the role of the highest Church authorities, giving them the mission to legitimize military action and turning them into the guardians of the essential Argentine values. At the same time, it launched an offensive to isolate and annihilate the pro-Third World groups.

These actions were legitimized by a discourse that ascribed disagreements within the Church itself to "Marxist infiltration" and to a "conspiracy against true Catholicism". In the meantime, the "subversive" threat continued to be the ideological justification that legitimized the extermination of the other. They were persecuted, exiled, kidnapped, tortured and murdered.

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However, the expressions condemning the military for the illegal nature of their actions and the enquiries on the whereabouts of catechists and other members of the Church never resulted from an institutional positioning, but rather from purely individual initiatives. Except for a few bishops, religious authorities chose to coexist with, rather than to confront, the de facto government.

The military have been purified in a River Jordan of blood to take the lead of our country" The assistance provided to the agents of repression or the moral coercion used during the interrogations of those who would later be shot dead, showed the degree of understanding between the Catholic authorities and the military regime.

Fundamentally, the military chaplains undertook to provide spiritual support to the torturers and to make captured civilians give in emotionally. Out of over eighty bishops, only four made the decision to confront the military regime. Both trade unions and political parties put pressure on the military in order to bring the de facto government to an end.

In the meantime, the episcopate took the task of reconciliation upon itself, now that the battle against "the subversive" had been left behind. Attitudes of negotiation, mediation or intransigence regarding this process led to different behaviors in most institutions, the Catholic Church among them. Its authorities propounded forgetting the past and resuming democratic life without any bitter feelings. To that end, they legitimized the Self-Amnesty Act with which the military exonerated themselves of the crimes committed so as to neutralize any attempt to take them to court.

He proposed an "Oblivion Act" as a way to end a painful stage and begin a new one based on social peace.

The documents issued by the episcopate from contributed to creating opportunities for dialog among the military, political parties and trade unions, and played a role in the national pacification policy. However, the magnitude of the events experienced under the state terrorism gave rise to a retrospective analysis from which the Catholic Church did not emerge unharmed.

On the one hand, the structural adjustment policies increased social heterogeneity and inequality.


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On the other, once the rigid controls on social relationships were liberalized as a result of the fall of the dictatorship and the advent of democracy, multiple organizations with different degrees of institutional status sprang and started interacting in the field of social representations and senses of belonging This reduced the power of a single institution to monopolize the production and transmission of values and rules of behavior. The possibility to uphold and demand that a body of rules be imposed as the organizing principle of society was limited.

The Catholic Church would face a crossroads which it has been unable to work out till today. However, that conflictive scene has not resulted in a reciprocal autonomy which could point to the nature of the institutional relationship in the long term, and which would serve to draw more accurate boundaries between both spheres.

To quote only a few examples, the Church elite specifically influenced the appointment of ministers of education, the definition of reproductive health policies and the drafting of the new Education Act. On the other hand, the official delegation in international fora took up as its own the defense of life from the moment of conception, a traditional banner of the Catholic Church Esquivel, Menem's speeches constantly recognized the Catholic influence on Argentine society, as well as the moral and spiritual legitimacy of the Catholic Church.

The prevailing political culture 14 views the presence of the Church in political society as natural, since the actors themselves strongly believe that they can gain an extra-political advantage by being linked to ecclesiastical authorities. This culture is part of the integral matrix, according to which the Catholic, the political and the national form a seamless tripod without boundaries.

To that effect, they have rid themselves of a large part of their government duties, directly or indirectly delegating to the Catholic Church the design, formulation and even implementation of certain public policies, especially in educational, family planning and social matters. Of course, these processes are not uniform throughout the entire country. Historical, religious and institutional factors affect how the relationships between politics and religion develop in each province.

Its men act as if the population's culture were integrally Catholic and, from that position of power, make demands of the political system. It should be added that the Catholic Church is the only religious institution with a public character. The attempts to amend the Civil Code are inspired by the recognition of new rights in a plural society, but they reinforce the legal status of the Catholic Church. Its long-standing public postures about various issues of the national agenda are disseminated and highlighted by the media.

The insistence on, and continuity of, this methodology has allowed the Church to consolidate its role as a relevant actor in the national public scene, and to present itself as a legitimate, authoritative and indispensable political actor, outside and above the party system. Fundamentally, education, policies related to family and sexual matters and the social issue are a set of themes which the Catholic authorities have not abandoned their attempts to model according to their doctrine.

La pampa y el suburbio son dioses, (ca.). (Archival material, ) [pernacocdoo.cf]

It is in these areas where tensions arise between the greater visibility and defense of citizen rights, on the one hand, and the ecclesiastical insistence on universalizing the religious moral of the Church, on the other, in the context of a society that becomes increasingly diverse from the cultural and religious point of view. This culture consists of collective imaginaries and representations which translate into in a number of naturalized practices, very often not motivated by laws in force or by the implementation of a certain government agenda, but rather by an instituted habitus.

While militarization —the dream of having a "colonel friend"— has been left behind, Catholicization imitated today by other religious groups, especially Evangelicals , carried out during decades of civilian, military and ecclesiastical dictatorships, has not ceased.


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  • By "secularization" we mean the long process of cultural readjustment of religious beliefs in our capitalist societies, which goes together with the declining power of Christian institutions and the emergence of other domains of social life. In turn, the term "laicity" can be specially analyzed from a "political-religious" viewpoint, since it immediately evokes the concept of, and the role played by, the state, especially a nation-state in the 19 th , 20 th and 21 st centuries, in terms of how it relates to the political, civil and religious society when searching for sources of legitimacy.

    The state may guarantee separation, freedom of worship, privileges, plurality, monopolies or freedom of beliefs and religions, totally, partially or not at all, for one, more than one, or no public expression of religion or beliefs. In Latin America, there is a dominant matrix—which runs very deep historically in the entire region— which has tied religion, politics and the market for centuries.

    The sociability networks that connect politicians, businessmen, social, cultural and media central figures with the religious world have created a field, space or social-political-religious sphere which runs through all social classes, sectors and fields. Hence the importance of talking about "laicities" Bauberot, This enables social sciences to become de-centered, de-Westernized and de-ethnicized, while compelling them to make rigorous comparisons, avoiding a normative rather than scientific point of view. Various combinations of these principles are found at different points in time and space, that is, depending on the historical moment and the social relationships in a specific country.

    In addition, each society shows more or less interest in some particular laicity principle around which political debate and the "actual" power relationships revolve. This work is a great contribution that avoids any "essentialist" or "reductionist" approaches. Besides, the concept of "state neutrality" calls for a deeper analysis, since it consists of an approximation or attempt at a description, given that each different type of state that has historically dominated or hegemonized a national or imperial society has tried to impose its own definition of neutrality.

    Moreover, such neutrality is related to other power spheres —like the economic, educational, financial, military and artistic ones— which are also related to religious groups, religious beliefs and the sacred elements produced, none of which should be overlooked by research. This type of laicity results from the fact that Latin American modernity was organized to include tight bonds between the political and the Catholic as analyzed in this article and that, since independence, it forged a link between the Christian and the political, between the state and religious groups.

    This kind of laicity —in its liberal , anti-liberal and plural variants— is the one we have experienced in a large part of Latin America, where the political and the religious go hand in hand, whether political society views the religious actor as another "political, non-partisan" actor, or whether the state seeks to broaden, complete or almost "naturally" recognize its social and symbolic credibility, presence and legitimacy by collaborating with religious groups' social action education, health, charity and sacred action which goes from accepting the figures of Abraham's God, Jesus or the Pacha Mama to longing for recognition by the Vatican through concordats Her shortsightedness was detected only in Peru, and since then she was wearer of glasses [7].

    In this hot desert Maria Reiche was living the rest of her life to measure the lines. Line of solstice 21 December with cane and hat from Maria Reiche. To put cane and hat was one of her working methods of her measuring work. Maria Reiche in on a ladder. The geoglyph of the monkey, the sight from above on the figure cleaned by Mrs. The monkey has nine fingers and is surrounded by zigzag lines in form of saw tooth zigzag lines and parallel zigzag lines covering surfaces. A part of a map of the Nasca plane basing on a map of Maria Reiche. Maria Reiche here about in the s cleaned the drawings around Nasca with a broom so the world could see the drawings better.

    A part of the drawing of the flamingo also called arum, heron or Phoenix bird : Mrs. Reiche cleaned all the lines so they were well visible for world public.

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    Maria Reiche's book "Mystery on the desert" of here the cover was edited just in three world languages. Hot-air balloon "Condor I" at 28 November The viewing tower in the Nasca plain was financed by a team of Maria Reiche and constructed in The shield of the tower indicates that there should not be more than 10 persons on the tower. The viewing tower even got a place-name sign [24] because - as it seems - some had passed the tower without seeing it [6]. The viewing tower is located just aside the drawings of the lizard, the tree, and the hands with 9 fingers as the monkey.

    There can be seen on the photo that the lizard was parted by the Panamericana at the begin of it's tail. The wheel tracks of "wild visitors" in the background have already caused considerable damage [25]. Maria Reiche in the car in the desert plain, in the s about. And soon at Maria Reiche Alley there was installed also a statue. Maria Reiche in with 83 years, portrait with desert plain in the background. Painted portrait of Maria Reiche of the s about. Maria Reiche in the late s about, portrait with a coloured cloth.

    Maria Reiche, portrait, s about. Nasca Lines Hotel in Nasca. Maria Reiche, in about. Their last years she was with amalgam illness Parkinson in the wheel chair. Maria Reiche center short time before her death in about, about 92 years old with sister Renate left and Ana Maria, adoptive daughter. Earthquake damage in Nasca 02 : In this street mainly the fronts are destructed. The side walls without doors and without windows are staying yet. Pilhips Pitluga, portrait, she should continue with the research on the Nasca lines after the death of Maria Reiche.

    Maria Reiche in before the garden wall in San Pablo in Ingenio district.