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Bach also composed alternative versions of his free-form preludes and fugues. The other main category of Bach compositions, 21 free-form preludes or toccatas or fantasias and fugues Bach Compendium BC J , BWV were composed beginning at the same time as the chorale preludes in Ohrdruf BWV , , , , as Bach worked to shape extended, free compositions as studies and for organ recitals.

Bach also composed early settings of fantasias as variations and as well as independent preludes. He continued to compose preludes and fugues in Weimar, the best-known being BWV , and In Leipzig, Bach composed extended free-form preludes and fugues possibly to open and close occasional liturgical services: E minor, BWV ; B minor, Bach also composed trio-sonatas in Leipzig primarily in the later s, the best-known being the six sonatas, BWV The group contains reworkings from prior compositions such as cantatas, organ works and chamber music as well as one original work, BWV These were composed as private studies for organ techniques for son Friedemann that originally were developed as trios by French composers.

While Bach cherished the music of other composers from whom he did transcriptions, he also in his free organ works pursued the Stylus Phantasticus in his special manner that inspired succeeding composers and arrangers to do transcriptions of his music, which continues to today in all manner of reworkings. The most impressive prelude and fugue is the "St. This music is appropriate for the Trinity Sunday festival as well as the festival vespers and the Catechism service following the Sunday main service.

With the 20th century development of electronic recordings, as described in Paul Elie's Reinventing Bach , 4 Bach's fame spread with the invention of the long-playing record about and as the anniversary celebrations of and included the "complete" Bach recorded editions which continue today.

Johann Sebastian Bach

The original revival of Bach's music had a religious perspective, beginning with the revival of the St. Matthew Passion in , followed by the J ohn Passion and Mass in B Minor , the motets, and a select group of sacred cantatas. At the turn of the 20th century, Schweitzer studied in Paris with the famous French organist and composer Charles-Marie Widor, while also studying theology at Strasbourg University for five years. Schweitzer had been trained to see Bach's music "as inextricably bound with Lutheran worship and liberal protestant theology," says Elie Ibid.

Through Widor, another Bach revivalist who called the organ works "sermons in sound," Schweitzer "encountered a broader, Enlightenment-style religiosity" and published his Bach musical biography in in French. He soon wrote a German version which was then translated into English.

Johann Sebastian Bach Facts

It ignited not so much another revival but a reinvention of Bach as an iconic figure. For Bach the famed organist in his lifetime had composed an unparalleled body of music which underwent Bach's "death and resurrection," 50 years later, says Schweitzer. While the early recordings were being improved, the organ as a musical instrument also underwent improvement and experienced a revival which extended to the massive electronic theater organs in the s. The other Bach phenomenon is the development of orchestral transcriptions miniatures of Bach's music for performance and recordings.

Trained as an organist, Stokowski arranged the work for full orchestra and eventually presented it with the Philadelphia Orchestra in Major, Modern Research Impetus The major, modern Bach research impetus began in the s with the publication of the New Bach Edition followed by the corrected dating of Bach's vocal music. In particular the some sacred cantatas generated a cottage industry of recordings, studies, text translations, handbooks, and anthologies.

By the tricentennial of Bach's death, publications expanded to cover the rest of the vocal music as well as the instrumental works, particularly the organ as recordings proliferated.

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The noted writer Peter Williams produced a thrvolume study of Bach's organ music, analyzing virtually every original work and their variants, which he updated and condensed into a two-volume edition in Another study of the collections is Anne Leahy's J.

Bach's Leipzig Chorale Preludes , ed.

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Robin A. Full of expressiveness and the pathos of oratorio, the prelude sections are the most typical feature of the Northern Germanic organ style.

But the core sense of the preludes lies in their fugue sections. Johann Heinrich Scheidemann — was one of the first representatives of the Northern Germanic organ school. He studied in Amsterdam under Jan Sweelinck — , who dedicated one of his works — a canon — to his pupil.

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At that time, Hamburg was a burgeoning city where music was developing fast, and Scheidemann was constantly in the company of famous Hamburg musicians and poets. He was acclaimed as a teacher, composer and organist. Moreover, Scheidemann was well acquainted with organ construction. Of all his pupils, Johann Reinken was to be become the most famous — he went on to found the opera house in Hamburg. Bach's Fantasia and Fugue in G Minor is often associated with his journey to Hamburg, and unsuccessful attempt to gain a position at the famous St. Jacobi Church.

The fact that he did not win the position was due to factors other than musical ones. His musical accomplishment certainly did impress his listeners, including the 97 year old Dutch "Father of organists," Johann Adam Reinken. The darkly dramatic Fantasia is constructed in the style so popular with Bach's North German predecessors. Toccata sections are contrasted with quiet fugal ones. Based on a lively Dutch folk tune perhaps in honor of Reinken , the fugue, the perfect foil for the serious fantasia, frolics along in the company of not one, but two, counter subjects.

Bach: Under the Influence - music of J.S. Bach, Georg, Bohm, Arnold, Brunckhorst - HBDirect Genres

The whole is brought to a exultant ending with the introduction of a new powerful motive, and a final pedal statement of the original subject. Late in his life, Bach spent time gathering collections of these pieces, sometimes reworking them, perhaps preparing them for publication. An invitation to the Eucharist Adorn yourself, dear soul, leave the dark cavern of sin , this setting evokes a tranquility through a gently ornamented melody, accompanied by an equally ornamented accompaniment that's thematically derived from the melody.

Schumann was impressed by the "state of bliss" that this piece evoked in him, and quoted Mendelssohn saying, "if life had robbed me of all hope and faith, Bach's chorale would restore them again. The six sonatas for two manuals and pedal were composed c.

To this day, they have served organ students well as studies, but are also a delight to audiences for the works' purity, balance, lyricism, and energy. As with the other five, Trio Sonata No. The first movement has the feeling of spring, the second is stylistically like a Siciliano in c minor , the final movement returns to major, and brings the work to an energetic close.

His pedal technique was legendary. One contemporary stated "he ran over the pedals with

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